from Yuki Kasai writing in Microbial Bioremediation of Non-metals: Current Research:
Bioremediation is a cost-effective technique for treatment of polluted environments and it involves usage of microorganisms for pollutant degradation. It can be defined as natural attenuation (intrinsic bioremediation), biostimulation (introduction of nutrients and chemicals to stimulate indigenous microorganisms), and bioaugmentation (inoculation with exogenous microorganisms). When carrying out bioremediation, special attention should be paid to its effects on the indigenous microbiota and dispersal and outbreaks of the inoculated organisms. Recent advances in microbial ecology have provided molecular technologies, such as community fingerprinting, molecular detection of degradative genes, and metagenomics, which facilitate the analysis and monitoring of indigenous and inoculated microorganisms in contaminated sites. This chapter outlines these technologies and discusses how they can contribute to bioremediation.
Further reading: Microbial Bioremediation of Non-metals: Current Research