The Biology of Paramyxoviruses | Book
Caister Academic Press
Siba K. Samal VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3711, USA
x + 470 (plus colour plates)
July 2011Buy hardbackAvailable now!
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Paramyxoviruses are a diverse family of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses that include many important human, animal, and zoonotic pathogens. Despite their enormous importance, the nature of the viral genome had proved an obstacle to research, with the result that paramyxoviral research had lagged behind that of other viruses. The advent of reverse genetics in recent years has changed this, enabling great strides to be made in our understanding of the genomics, molecular biology and viral pathogenesis.
This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of current knowledge of all paramyxoviruses and is written by renowned scientists who have made seminal contributions in their respective paramyxovirus fields of expertise. Topics include: mumps virus, simian virus 5, parainfluenza viruses, Newcastle disease and related avian paramyxoviruses, Sendai virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumoviruses, and new and emerging paramyxoviruses. Each chapter covers our current knowledge on history, genome organization, viral proteins, reverse genetics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis, prevention and control and future challenges.
This book is an invaluable reference source of timely information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, physicians, veterinarians and scientists working on paramyxoviruses. It is also strongly recommended for all medical and veterinary school libraries.
"an up-to-date reference on a diverse family of viruses" from Ref. Res. Book News (August 2011)
"This is a broad, expert overview of new information on paramyxoviruses ... a very comprehensive book on paramyxoviruses that will be a great source of information for many years" from Rebecca T. Horvat (University of Kansas Medical Center, USA) writing in Doodys
"... the editor has compiled an encyclopedic reference that encompasses almost every known member of the Paramyxoviridae family ... this volume is not only timely, it is a testament to the remarkable progress we have made in studying this challenging family of viruses ... I recommend that The Biology of Paramyxoviruses be in all biomedical libraries; this volume will certainly find a welcome spot in my personal one." from Benhur Lee (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) writing in Q. Rev. Biol. (2012) 87: 392
"up-to-date" (Book News); "very comprehensive" (Doodys); "an encyclopedic reference" (Q. Rev. Biol.)
Brian W.J. Mahy
There is no abstract for this chapter, however the first paragraph is presented here instead. The chapters in this excellent book provide a truly comprehensive account of all known paramyxoviruses, a group whose members include highly pathogenic viruses affecting the human population, as well as animals and birds. In the early days of virology, the word "myxovirus" was coined for a group of viruses that had common features, namely an affinity for mucoproteins, and an enzyme activity that attacks the mucoprotein substrate (Andrewes et al, 1955). This group of viruses included fowl plague, first discovered in 1901 (Centanni, 1901), and later shown to be a highly virulent form of avian influenza virus (Davenport et al, 1960), as well as the human viruses, influenza, para-influenza, mumps, and avian Newcastle disease virus. Soon after this group was named, however, a number of biological differences as well as structural differences were noted between influenza and fowl plague viruses, on the one hand, and para-influenza, mumps and Newcastle disease viruses on the other (Andrewes and Worthington, 1959; Franklin and Wecker, 1959). This led to the concept of two kinds of myxovirus (Waterson, 1962), now known as the families Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae. With hindsight, we now know that orthomyxoviruses are totally different in their structure and replication from paramyxoviruses, and their only features in common are the properties of binding to mucoproteins by a virion envelope protein and release by a receptor destroying enzyme, the neuraminidase, as originally recognized (Andrewes et al, 1955). The orthomyxovirus genome consists of negative-stranded RNA which is segmented, and transcription of this genome occurs within the nucleus and requires capped oligonucleotide primer RNAs (10-13 nucleotides long) that are derived from newly synthesized host cell mRNAs by endonuclease activity of the virus PB2 protein. Because of this intimate involvement with host cell transcription, orthomyxovirus replication is blocked by substances such as actinomycin D or alpha-amanitin, which do not affect paramyxovirus replication.
Steven Rubin and Corinne Vandermeulen
Mumps is a contagious infectious disease caused by mumps virus, a Rubulavirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Mumps outbreaks were common in the prevaccine era, with nearly everyone having been exposed by adolescence based on the presence of virus-specific antibody. The hallmark of infection is the painful enlargement of the parotid gland, and although perceived as a benign childhood disease, mumps was the leading cause of aseptic meningitis and sensorineural deafness prior to the adoption of widespread vaccine use. The changing epidemiology of mumps in the postvaccine era has renewed interest in the virus, specifically in regards to the biology of the virus, development of new diagnostic tools, investigation of immune responses following vaccination and the epidemiological effects of mumps vaccination in large populations. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of mumps virus as an infectious agent, the immune response to infection and its epidemiology, prevention and control measures.
The Parainfluenza Virus Simian Virus 5
Griffith D. Parks, Mary J. Manuse, and John B. Johnson
Many of the fundamental properties of paramyxovirus biology are founded on studies of the prototype negative strand RNA virus Simian Virus 5 (SV5). This includes the basic understanding of the structure of the paramyxovirus particle, as well as the structure and function of the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase attachment protein and viral fusion protein. The discovery of the unique mechanism by which many paramyxoviruses express the viral P and V proteins by non-templated addition of G residues was first described for SV5. This prototype paramyxovirus also employs unique biological processes to evade host immune responses, including the blocking host cell sensors that recognize virus replication products and the targeted degradation of STAT1, a host cell protein that is integral to interferon signaling. Based on this rich history of fundamental discoveries, future work will be focused on interactions of SV5 with the immune system and development of novel SV5-based vectors.
Newcastle Disease and Related Avian Paramyxoviruses
Siba K. Samal
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry worldwide. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections may have flock mortality rates up to 100%. The economic impact is not only due to loss of birds, but also due to trade restrictions and embargoes placed on areas and countries where the outbreaks have occurred. In many developing countries ND is endemic and the disease has the greatest impact on villages where the livelihood of people depend on poultry farming. ND probably has the most impact on the world's economy than any other animal disease. NDV belongs to avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) and is the most characterized member among the nine APMV serotypes. In recent years, NDV has drawn a lot of research interest not only because it is an important pathogen of poultry, but it is also an oncolytic agent and is a potential vaccine vector for human and animal uses. Currently, very little is known about the molecular biology and pathogenicity of APMV-2 to -9, but our knowledge on these serotypes is rapidly expanding with the availability of complete genome sequences of all APMV serotypes.
Evolution of Sendai Virus: The Journey from Mouse Pathogen to a State-of-the-Art Tool in Virus Research and Biotechnology
Yoshiyuki Nagai, Akira Takakura, Takashi Irie, Yoshikazu Yonemitsu and Bin Gotoh
Sendai virus (SeV) is not just an old mouse pathogen. SeV has been an irreplaceable tool in basic research to understand paramyxovirus replication and pathogenesis. SeV has further made an entrance into the scene of technological innovation in delivering foreign genes of interest to target cells and tissues. In this context, there are two different approaches. One is to make good use of the fusogenic capacity of inactivated SeV virions and the other is to generate a non-genotoxic (non-integrating) cytoplasmic RNA vector by reverse genetics. Here, we review the long history of SeV research focusing on its contribution to basic virology and technological development. We also highlight some old discoveries that have mostly vanished from recent textbooks but provided crucial momentum to the development of the current concepts and technologies.
Santanu Chattopadhyay, Frank Esper and Amiya K. Banerjee
Parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) include several members of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order ranging from Respirovirus, Avulavirus and Rubulavirus genera. These group of viruses consist of several species that causes upper and lower respiratory illness in humans, especially among children and in a variety of animals. These medium sized, pleomorphic, enveloped viruses attach to the host cells' membranes and get internalized at neutral pH with the help of Hemagglutinin-Nuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) - the two surface glycoproteins. Inside the cytoplasm, the ~15 Kb non-segmented negative sense RNA (NNS) genomes that are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) are transcribed and replicated by the associated viral polymerase heterocomplex - the large protein (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). The newly replicated RNA genomes are concomitantly encapsidated by the N protein and with the help of the matrix proteins (M), assemble and bud out as mature virions containing the viral glycoproteins and the polymerase along with the host cell membrane envelope. The P gene of PIVs characteristically encodes several accessory proteins, viz C, V, W, D, which are expressed by mRNA editing or alternative translation mechanisms. Despite significant ongoing efforts, no suitable vaccine or antiviral compounds are available to date against these clinically and economically important viruses.
Hendra and Nipah Viruses
Michael K. Lo, Melissa M. Coughlin and Paul A. Rota
Nipah and Hendra viruses comprise the genus Henipavirus and are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses, which cause fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Since their respective initial outbreaks in 1998 and 1994, they have continued to cause sporadic outbreaks resulting in fatal disease. Due to their designation as Biosafety Level 4 pathogens, the level of containment required to work with live henipaviruses is available only to select laboratories around the world. This chapter provides an overview of henipaviruses in regards to their diagnosis, clinical features, and epidemiology, while highlighting recent studies which have expanded our knowledge of their molecular biology, pathogenesis, and control with novel antiviral therapeutics.
Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies and W. Paul Duprex
Measles virus (MV) infections continue to be of high clinical relevance as they can be associated with severe disease processes such as pneumonia and central nervous system (CNS) complications, but also because they cause a generalized transient immunosuppression. Though characterized and causatively linked to MV decades ago, the pathogenesis of these diseases including the prime target cells in the respiratory tract is far from being understood. The advent of reverse genetics systems for both vaccine and wild-type viruses alongside the establishment of suitable tissue culture and animal models has helped to provide new insights into mechanisms of viral entry and tissue targeting both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, there is an increasing understanding of mechanisms underlying the disruption of immune functions towards secondary infections in the face of the induction of an efficient virus-specific immune response. For the latter, the interaction of MV with professional antigen-presenting cells and the consequences for T cell activation and/or inhibition, have received particular attention. The detailed knowledge of MV gene functions together with the definition of the interaction of MV with cells of the hematopoietic system is critical to improve the success of vaccination, particularly in young infants and in immunocompromised individuals, but also to use MV as a vector for targeted gene therapy.
Canine Distemper Virus
Bevan Sawatsky, Sébastien Delpeut and Veronika von Messling
Canine distemper virus (CDV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus, causes one of the most devastating infectious diseases in carnivores. It is highly contagious and transmitted by aerosol or contact with body fluids from infected animals. Immune cells expressing the morbillivirus receptor signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150) are the initial CDV targets, and first infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells are detected after two days. Infection of epithelia coincides with the onset of clinical signs, and is frequently followed by neuroinvasion and neurological sequelae. Disease severity can range from mild and short-lived to lethal, depending on strain and sensitivity of the host species. Therefore, the commercial live-attenuated vaccines, even though they are safe and efficacious in dogs, have to be carefully evaluated for each species. The characterization of genetic virulence determinants has revealed the importance of efficient entry and viral interference with innate immune activation, which constitute starting points for the development of the specifically attenuated vaccines.
Rinderpest and Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses
Michael D. Baron
In terms of their impact on livestock, and therefore on human well-being and development, rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are two of the most important members of the paramyxovirus family. RPV, the cause of the most feared of all cattle diseases, now appears to have been eradicated; however, over the past 20 years, PPRV has increased its global distribution through most of sub-Saharan and North Africa, the Middle East, the Indian sub-continent and eastwards into Tibet. While most scientific effort has been focused on developing means of control of the diseases, effort in a small number of laboratories has thrown light on the detailed molecular biology of the viruses, providing information on those areas in which they are the same as, or differ from, other members of the same genus. Such findings have highlighted how important it is to understand the way that these viruses are restricted in the range of organisms in which they will cause disease, an understanding that will become increasingly important with the success in eradicating these diseases on a local and global level.
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Peter L. Collins
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects essentially everyone worldwide during infancy and early childhood and is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization for respiratory disease. RSV also is a frequent cause of less severe disease in healthy adults and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and in severely immunosuppressed individuals. RSV is an enveloped nonsegmented negative strand RNA virus classified in the Paramyxoviridae family, and its genome organization is one of the more complex of this family. The genome includes: two separate genes encoding type I and type III interferon (IFN) antagonists (NS1 and NS2); a gene (M2) with two open reading frames encoding novel proteins (M2-1 and M2-2) involved in RNA synthesis; and an attachment protein G that has a number of unusual features, including high sequence variability, heavy glycosylation, cytokine mimicry, and a shed form that helps the virus evade neutralizing antibodies. RSV is able to efficiently infect and cause disease in very young infants, with the peak of hospitalization at 2-3 months of age, despite the presence of maternally derived virus-neutralizing serum antibodies. RSV has a single serotype but is able to re-infect symptomatically throughout life without the need for significant antigenic change, although immunity from prior infection reduces disease. It is widely thought that re-infection is due to an ability of RSV to inhibit or subvert the host immune response, but this remains largely speculative. The development of an effective vaccine or specific antiviral therapy against RSV is considered a high priority, but these goals remain unfulfilled. RSV is notable for a historic vaccine failure: a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine that was evaluated in infants and children in the 1960's was poorly protective and paradoxically primed for enhanced RSV disease upon subsequent natural RSV infection. However, RSV also is notable because of the development of a successful strategy for passive immunoprophylaxis of infants at high risk for serious RSV disease using an RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb).
James E. Crowe, Jr. and John V. Williams
The metapneumoviruses were discovered more recently than most paramyxoviruses, because of the difficulty in isolating lives viruses in cell culture from clinical materials. Nevertheless, rapid progress has been made in identifying the salient features of the epidemiology and biology of these viruses. Remarkably, human metapneumovirus appears to be one of the most common causes of severe lower respiratory tract illness in infants and children. The virus is also a major cause of illness in the elderly. Avian metapneumovirus also was discovered relatively recently and is a major cause of disease in birds, especially in commercial poultry. Molecular biologists have defined the distinguishing features of the viral genomes, and animal models have been developed that allow detailed studies of pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, and protective efficacy of candidate vaccines.
New and Emerging Paramyxoviruses
Danielle E. Anderson and Lin-Fa Wang
The family Paramyxoviridae is composed of a diverse group of viruses and is divided into two subfamilies, Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. This chapter will limit the discussion to viruses in Paramyxovirinae only. There are currently 40 virus species classified within this subfamily, but several remain unclassified at the genus level. In the past few decades, paramyxoviruses have emerged from terrestrial, volant and aquatic animals, demonstrating a vast host range and great viral genetic diversity. As molecular technology advances and viral surveillance programs are implemented, it is expected that the opportunity for the discovery of new viruses will increase in the years to come. Here, we will provide a review of those new and emerging paramyxoviruses originating from non-human and mainly wildlife animals. The disease causing potential of many of these new viruses is not known, our focus will therefore be placed on the molecular characterization of these viruses and their host range and genetic relationship with other viruses in the same subfamily.
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(EAN: 9781904455851 Subjects: [microbiology] [virology] [medical microbiology] )