Essentials of Veterinary Parasitology | Book
Caister Academic Press
Hany M. Elsheikha and Naveed Ahmed Khan School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK
x + 222 (colour illustrations)
May 2011Buy book
GB £99 or US $169
May 2011Buy book
GB £59 or US $99
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Approaches to the teaching of veterinary parasitology face two major challenges. First, the quantity of data describing any given parasite can be overwhelming, if not indigestible, for students. Second is the urge to write more and more about less and less, which is the bane of those who write textbooks intended to be used by students. To meet these challenges the editors of this volume have opted to be selective in the choice of topics in an effort to make the book readable, rather than comprehensive.
Essentials of Veterinary Parasitology provides an up-to-date resource for students and practicing veterinarians on how to recognize, diagnose and treat parasitic diseases in livestock and companion animals. Featuring full-colour illustrations and a user friendly layout, it begins with a section dedicated to the fundamentals of veterinary parasitology and ends with a section on the prevention of parasitic infections entailing recent developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis and control of parasitic diseases. In-between are sections on important parasitic infections in livestock organized by the parasite agents - helminths, protozoa and arthropods - plus a section on diagnostic parasitology. This book is an essential reference for veterinary students, practicing veterinarians and researchers in the field of parasitology.
"There has long been a need for a concise parasitology textbook covering essential and emerging topics of clinical importance. This book fulfils this requirement and is an excellent up to date resource for researchers, veterinarians and students. The topics are clearly and precisely presented in an easy to read format. There are six sections and each is accompanied by very good pictorial presentations of life cycles and photographs of the major parasites to assist with diagnosis ... This is an excellent, accurate and up to date parasitological textbook that is easy to read and not cluttered with unnecessary data. It is an essential tool for students, parasitologists and veterinarians." from Tricia Veale writing in Aus. Vet. J. (2011) 89: 443
"an original review of the main general parasitological issues ... The mechanisms of parasite establishment in the host at cellular and population levels are admirably summarized according to the many factors involved, depending on host, parasite and environment. In addition, the basics of host immune defences are nicely reviewed" from Domenico Otranto (University of Bari, Italy) writing in Parasites and Vectors (2011) 4: 67
"an up-to-date resource for students and practicing veterinarians for recognizing, diagnosing and treating parasitic diseases in livestock and pet animals. Featuring full-colour illustrations and a user friendly layout ... This excellent volume will be of a great value to veterinary students, practicing veterinarians and all researchers in the field of parasitology, including practising parasitologists, immunologists, and physicians, and also for beginners in all of these fields ... an indispensable acquisition for every library of institutes where studies of veterinary medicine and related sciences are carried out ... will be in demand for many, many years" from Zdzislaw Swiderski (Polish Academy of Sciences and Medical University of Warsaw, Poland) writing in Acta Partasitologica (2011) 56(3).
"This book covers the wide array of veterinary parasitic infections with clarity and serves as an easy reference for basic information ... This book accomplishes just what the authors set out to do. It covers a multitude of parasitic diseases in brief detail and engages readers by describing clinical signs and their relevance. It is not designed to completely review all permutations of life cycle or to identify all the intracellular interactions that occur during parasitic infestation. I found that I that the more I read, the more I appreciated the book." from Dennis D. French (University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, USA) writing in Doodys
"The text is easy to read, uses straight forward language but standard terminology, and the figures use cheerful colors and complement the text well. I liked the liberal use of micrographs of parasites. I think the book would be suitable as an introductory text for Veterinary students or college students. It is helpful to have ectoparasites, worms and protozoa covered in a single text at a level of detail that could reasonably be covered in a one-semester course. The focus on diagnosis and treatment is appropriate and the authors have avoided extensive discussion of disease pathology and host control mechanisms which simplifies the text. It is certainly useful that veterinarians are educated in this field both to safeguard patients and to help protect pet owners and agricultural workers from zoonotic disease. In this context the text would also be useful to medical students." from Samuel J. Black (Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA) writing in Curr. Issues Mol. Biol.
"It is up-to-date ... written in an easy readable style and well illustrated. The authors have deliberately chosen to deal with the major parasitic diseases, leaving the less common ones ... the book is particularly suitable for students and veterinary practitioners. For parasitologists working in research, this book could be a handy quick reference ... for students in veterinary medicine, for veterinary practitioners and for persons interested in basic knowledge on veterinary parasitology in general... it is worth buying." from Fred Borgsteede (Lelystad, The Netherlands) writing in Veterinary Parasitology (2011) 182: 384
"a nice instructional resource for both veterinary students and veterinary technology students ... informative and educational ... excellent pictures and diagrams ... great visuals and explanations of diseases ... very comprehensive, easy to read and follow ... Students will love this book." from Marisa Rhyne, BAS, RVT, VTS (ECC, SAIM) writing in Veterinary Information Network
"excellent, accurate and up to date ... an essential tool" (Aus. Vet. J.); "an indispensable acquisition" (Acta Partasitologica) "it is worth buying" (Vet. Para.); "Students will love this book" VIN
Section I: Nature and Characteristics of Parasitism
Hany M. Elsheikha and Naveed Ahmed Khan
We tend to think of parasites as a nuisance, but they are in fact very serious disease-causing agents. Despite advances of veterinary medicine, parasitic diseases have remained a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses, worldwide. With the increasing burden of parasites on human and animal suffering, study of "parasitology" has become an important and rapidly growing discipline of science. Veterinarians' awareness of parasitic diseases is undoubtedly more critical now than at any time in the history of veterinary medical practice. This chapter provides a short introduction to parasites and their unique properties.
Principles of Parasite Infection
Hany M. Elsheikha and Naveed Ahmed Khan
How do parasites establish themselves inside their hosts is one of the most intriguing questions in parasitology. Given the diversity that exists among parasites, it is not surprising that the mechanics of parasitic infections are highly variable. The diverse strategies that pathogenic parasites use to infect their hosts have become better understood by means of molecular techniques that have allowed the identification of parasitic genes and virulence factors which are crucial to disease establishment and progression. Despite all this progress, predicting and derailing the transmission of any parasitic disease remains a challenge. This chapter addresses the interplay between parasites and their host organisms, introduces the fundamentals of parasite infection, and provides an overview of the multiple determinants - related to the parasite, the host, and the environment - that influence the parasite's capacity to cause a disease at the cellular and population levels.
The Immune Defenses of The Host
Neil Foster and Hany M. Elsheikha
In addition to the host's behaviour and physiology, immunity is another important host factor that influences the host-parasite interactions. The immune system is one of the most complex and diverse body components. This system recognizes parasite antigens as 'non-self' (foreign) and an immune response to these parasites is then initiated. It is difficult to generalize about the mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity because there are many different parasites that have different forms, which reside in different tissue of the animal body and in some cases may reside in different host species. Parasites have also evolved very elaborate mechanisms to escape attack by the host immune system. In this chapter we describe the range of defences the mammalian body possess to combat parasitic infections.
Section II: Diseases Associated with Helminths
Major Nematode Infections
Hany M. Elsheikha
Classification of nematodes has been traditionally based on the presence or absence of a posterior cuticular chemoreceptor called 'phasmid'. Nematode species with phasmid are known as phasmidea (Secernentea) and nematodes that lack phasmid are called aphasmidea (Adenophera). It is important to realize that the parasite taxonomy is an evolving field and there is no a single scheme that is always acceptable. Class Nematoda encompasses numerous species that infect livestock and companion animals. This chapter focuses only on the most economically important nematode infections in livestock and companion animals. General taxonomy of nematodes considered in this chapter is given to the genus level.
Major Cestode Infections
Hany M. Elsheikha
Cestoda is a class of parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes), commonly called tapeworms or cestodes. All tapeworms use vertebrates as a definitive host, and vertebrates or invertebrates (arthropods, crustaceans) as an intermediate host, depending on the species. The definitive host harbors the adult, sexual, or mature stages of parasite. Larval 'metacestode' development occurs in the intermediate host (I.H.), which will be eaten by definitive host. In the latter, larval stages attach to the gut mucosa and mature to adult tapeworms via a process called 'strobilation'. Most tapeworms are found in the small intestine of their host as adults or, with Thysanosoma spp., have access to the intestine.
Major Fluke Infections
Philip J. Skuce
Dicrocoeliosis is caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, which is also known as 'lancet fluke' or 'small liver fluke'. It can infect sheep, goats, cattle, deer and rabbits, and occasionally horses and pigs. Dicrocoeliasis is a widespread problem worldwide in grazing livestock. The epidemiology of Dicrocoelium depends upon the environment and on the presence of its intermediate and definitive hosts. Dicrocoelium spp. do pose a zoonotic risk but are very uncommon in humans, most cases are likely to be non-symptomatic.
Section III: Diseases Associated with Protozoa
Diseases Caused by Protozoa
Naveed Ahmed Khan and Hany M. Elsheikha
This chapter discusses Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis, amoebiasis, babesiosis, Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis, balantidiasis (also known as balantidiosis), besnoitiosis, blastocystosis, coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, cytauxzoonosis, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, giardiosis, leishmaniasis, neosporiosis, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, rhinosporidiosis, sarcosporidiosis, theilerioses, mediterranean coast fever, trichomoniosis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiosis, nagana or african trypanosomiosis.
Section IV: Diseases Associated with Arthropods
Diseases Caused by Insects
Heinz Sager and Hany M. Elsheikha
This chapter discusses cuterebriasis, gastrophilus infestation, flea infestation, flies, louse infestation (pediculosis), midges, mosquitoes, oestrus ovis infestation (sheep nasal flies), warble flies (heel fly, hypodermosis).
Diseases Caused by Acarines
Heinz Sager and Hany M. Elsheikha
Mites are ectoparasites of a wide range of birds, domesticated and wild animal species. Some have a zoonotic significance. Mites are members of the phylum Arthropoda. Demodex spp and Psorobia spp are host specific, and these species will not cross-infest other hosts. However mange mites (Chorioptes spp, Psoroptes spp and Sarcoptes spp) are no host specific and can cross-infest a large number of hosts. Mites live on the host continuously and infest other animals by contact. The life cycles of mites are all slightly different because some burrow, whereas others live on the surface of the skin. Sarcoptes spp. and Notoedres cati females burrow in the skin and deposit eggs. The eggs hatch into six-legged larvae, which develop and molt to eight-legged protonymphs and tritonymphs, which develop and molt into adults. The entire cycle requires 9 to 17 days. The ticks found on domesticated animals are not host specific, although they do have host preferences, and their distribution is subject to environmental conditions. Ticks are identified as being soft or hard ticks. The hard ticks are generally classified as one-, two-, or three-host ticks. Three-host ticks may complete the cycle in a short period (Rhipicephalus spp.), whereas other ticks (Dermacentor spp.) require 2 years, with 1 year between each stage before they reattach to a host.
Hany M. Elsheikha
Ticks are giant acarids (phylum Arthropoda), which have a major veterinary and public health impact. They represent an obstacle in economic growth especially in developing countries. Due to their feeding behaviour ticks inflict considerable physical damage and irritation which disrupt the foraging of livestock, thereby reducing productivity and fitness, and lowering defences against other diseases (e.g. tick-borne fever predisposes lambs to tick pyaemia). Wounds induced by tick bites are open to invasion by secondary bacterial and fungal, and other opportunistic infections. Tick infestation may also cause tick paralysis, thought to be due to a neurotoxin elaborated by the tick's ovaries, and introduced into the host with saliva while the tick is feeding. This condition is generally characterized by progressive, ascending, flaccid motor paralysis with muscle in-coordination and ataxia.
Section V: Diagnostic Parasitology
Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections
David J. Bartley and Hany M. Elsheikha
Accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections is a prerequisite for successful treatment and control of these pathogens. Errors in the diagnosis can lead to the initiation of unnecessary therapies, or delays in initiating the correct therapy. Thus, the clinicians must maintain a sharp index of suspicion and must rely on detailed history and clinical manifestations, to raise the possibility of a parasitic disease. Even though the diagnosis can be difficult, and definitive identification of the parasites can be challenging particularly in the non-endemic settings. Therefore, laboratory testing for detection and identification of the parasitic agents is required to complement clinical judgement, enhance the clinician's ability to select specific anti-parasitic drugs, and ultimately improve patient care. A wide range of laboratory procedures are available for the diagnosis of parasitic infections. These procedures vary in methodology, expense, availability, sensitivity, and specificity. In this chapter, the standard techniques used in the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections are discussed.
Pathology Associated with Parasitic Infections
Scott D. Fitzgerald
Parasites may induce a wide variety of pathology in their host tissues. These changes vary from inapparent, to frank necrosis, grossly visible granulomas, and induction of hyperplastic or neoplastic changes in various tissues. The host may exhibit no clinical signs, or develop anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, anorexia, even death. A few simple terms need to be defined before we begin our discussion of pathology. Localized infection refers to a parasitic infection that is limited to a single host tissue or focal areas of a given organ system. While generalized parasitic infection refers to parasites that have widespread migration throughout the host body in many tissues. While we are not going to make the reader a pathology expert, you should understand some basic pathology terms. Necrosis refers to destruction of normal tissue cells and organ architecture resulting in accumulations of cellular debris, fibrin, inflammatory cells, and red blood cells. Granulomatous inflammation is a chronic form of inflammation which is comprised predominantly of mixed mononuclear leukocytes including macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and sometimes multi-nucleated giant cells. If a granuloma has central zone of necrosis, this is a caseogranuloma. A hyperplastic change involved increased numbers or size of normal tissues, such as thickening of a keratinized layer in the epidermis being known as hyperkeratosis. Neoplastic transformation means that a true neoplasm consisting of a monomorphic population of cells has developed into a microscopic or grossly visible tumor or mass.
Section VI: Principles of Parasite Control
Hany M. Elsheikha and Gerald C. Coles
Most animals will carry a few parasites in/on their body and this is normal if kept under control. But, if the infection becomes overwhelming the animal's health will suffer and irreversible damage could result. Indeed, parasite infections continue to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock worldwide, a significant health and welfare issue in companion animals, and an important source of zoonotic infections in humans. Despite tremendous efforts, the number of eradicated parasites is negligible and the perspectives for future eradications would most likely be counteracted by the emergence or re-emergence of other parasite species. Control of parasites can be challenging because parasites can use different immune evasive strategies and/or become resistant to drugs following exposure to the host immune response or to non-judicious use of anti-parasitic therapy, respectively. These challenges necessitate an integrated parasite management approach that encompasses a range of manipulations of the host (e.g. increased genetic host resistance through selecting for low fecal worm egg count, improved host resistance through proper nutrition), the environment (e.g. pasture management, appropriate husbandry, sound sanitation) and the parasite (e.g. sensible use of antiparasitics, maintain susceptible population of parasites, sterile male technologies for insects). This chapter will consider the reasons for parasite control followed by general considerations for parasite control and finally specific considerations for control of endoparasites and ectoparasites in ruminants, horses and companion animals.
Antiparasitic Drugs: Mechanisms of Action and Resistance
Hany M. Elsheikha, Steven McOrist and Timothy G. Geary
Parasites such as nematodes and mites can be debilitating and deadly inhabitants of an animal's body. While some parasitic infections can be controlled effectively by preventive biosecurity, vaccines or other non-pharmaceutical intervention measures, for many parasites, these measures are not available, have a limited effect, or cannot be applied in practical settings. Antiparasitic drugs are the commonly-applied pharmaceutical compounds used to reduce, treat or prevent parasitic infections in animals. Starting perhaps with the initial usage of carbon tetrachloride against Fasciola in cattle, the strategic use of anthelmintic drugs has drastically reduced gastro-intestinal helminth infections and improved the welfare and productivity of domestic animals. Widespread effective usage of antiparasitics is therefore one of the greatest triumphs of the parasitology discipline, although they are not without problems and shortcomings. One of the most pressing concerns addressed in this chapter is the emergence of strains of parasites that are resistant to the action of an antiparasitic drug.
Biology and Management of Anthelmintic Resistance
Ray M. Kaplan
Anthelmintic resistance is defined as a heritable genetic change in a population of worms that produces an alteration in the chemical sensitivity of that population. This change enables some individual worms in that population to survive drug treatments that are generally effective against the same species and stage of infection at the same dose rate. In practical terms anthelmintic resistance is present in a population of parasites when the efficacy of the drug falls below that which is historically expected, when other causes of reduced efficacy have been ruled out. These types of genetic changes occur slowly, usually over many years, and are the direct result of natural selection on parasite populations in response to drug treatments. Precise molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated for any of the anthelmintics, but some important mutations have been identified that are involved in resistance to benzimidazole drugs.
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(EAN: 9781904455790 9781904455806 Subjects: [microbiology] [parasitology] )